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July 22, 1812 - death of Arthur Wellington in the battle of Salamanca

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1812, July-August-the Eastern campaign of Napoleon I, which ended in victory over the Russian armies. Alexander I was forced to sign the Smolensk peace Treaty on September 1, under which he again joined the Continental blockade, refused Finland in favor of Denmark - Napoleon's faithful ally among European monarchies, returned a number of lands in favor of the Duchy of Warsaw and returned to Talleyran possession of his wife - the Duchy of Courland. In addition, learned from Alexander about the betrayal of bernadot, Napoleon forced him to leave Sweden.

July 22, 1812-the Death of Arthur Wellington in the battle of Salamanca, which turned into the collapse of the entire military campaign for the British.

February 8, 1813-Napoleon I Defeated the British at Lisbon: the regular British army in the Pyrenees ceased to exist.

August 1813 - August 1814-the Second civil war in England between the Republicans George Byron and the loyalists George IV. The death of Wellington, the defeat in Spain, the difficult socio-economic crisis, shared the unpopularity of the monarchy and the support of the Paris rebels led to the defeat of George; August 1, 1814 he runs from England to Brazil, and in London, the House of Commons celebrates the victory. However, in the spring of 1813 England lost Canada in favor of the United States, control over India began to establish the French, who for this had to compromise with the local aristocracy, and the Irish revolted and declared independence of their island, immediately recognized by Napoleon.

1815-Charles (Carlos) I of Parma sits on the throne of Portugal: who had no rights to it, he was forced to go for liberal reforms. Taking advantage of the collapse of the metropolis, its independence from the British declared the Boers, creating the Republic of South Africa-the French also established a formal protectorate over Australia. Britain adopted the people's Charter, the Islands ' first written Constitution, which was extraordinarily progressive for the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Dissatisfied with the defeat of the Russian nobles create the first secret society. The final establishment of the French protectorate over Egypt.

1816-repeated Amnesty of migrants in France: the rest preferred to return, realizing the futility of further denial of what had happened. Alexander I reinstated Mikhail Speransky as Secretary of state, who began to work out an extensive program of reforms: the state of the ruler of Russia is gradually deteriorating, and the question of his possible heir becomes acute.

Winter-spring 1818-Napoleon I organizes the Eastern campaign-a joint statement of the European powers against the Ottoman Empire. It involved, in addition to France, Russia, Austria and the Rhine Union - the Turks had no chance. According to the peace of Constantinople signed on may 29, the Latin Empire under the rule of Joseph I Bonaparte is being created, on this occasion renounced the crown of Spain: Bulgaria is in its vassalage; Serbia, together with the Illyrian provinces of France, departed Austria. She also received suzerainty over the Danube principalities. The Ottoman Empire also handed over to France its possessions in Africa and guaranteed the security of French property.

Summer 1818 - major unrest in Spain: the conflict between Republicans and monarchists, which threatened to result in a full-fledged civil war. However, the extreme unpopularity of Ferdinand VII did its job: liberal-minded officers led by Rafael Riego-and-Nunez captured the king and forced him to abdicate. This action was supported by Napoleon I, who did not consider the Spanish Bourbons his loyal allies for obvious reasons: Ferdinand and his supporters hastily withdrew from Europe. Meanwhile, in Bulgaria was invited to the Kingdom of the younger branch of the Bavarian Wittelsbach. After the death of Charles XIII, power in Sweden and Norway passed to Friedrich Wilhelm of Glucksburg.

1819-French Capture of Bengal; Alexander I sharply rejected Novosiltsev-Speransky's" Charter", not wishing to go for radical reforms. This step is caused at the same time as the strengthening of positions of reactionary and radical induced many nobles to join the secret society. The division of the Dutch East India company's holdings between France, Portugal and Sweden.

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